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Open Access Review

Periodontal disease: the influence of metabolic syndrome

Enrico Marchetti1, Annalisa Monaco1, Laura Procaccini1, Stefano Mummolo1, Roberto Gatto1, Stefano Tetè2, Alberto Baldini3, Simona Tecco1* and Giuseppe Marzo1

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Life, Health and Environmental Sciences, University of L’Aquila, L’Aquila, Italy

2 Department of Oral Science, Nano and Biotechnology, University of Chieti, Chieti, Italy

3 Department of Oral Science, University of Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy

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Nutrition & Metabolism 2012, 9:88  doi:10.1186/1743-7075-9-88

Published: 25 September 2012

Abstract

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors that include obesity, impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes, hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Recently, more attention has been reserved to the correlation between periodontitis and systemic health. MetS is characterized by oxidative stress, a condition in which the equilibrium between the production and the inactivation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) becomes disrupted. ROS have an essential role in a variety of physiological systems, but under a condition of oxidative stress, they contribute to cellular dysfunction and damage. Oxidative stress may act as a common link to explain the relationship between each component of MetS and periodontitis. All those conditions show increased serum levels of products derived from oxidative damage, promoting a proinflammatory state. Moreover, adipocytokines, produced by the fat cells of fat tissue, might modulate the balance between oxidant and antioxidant activities. An increased caloric intake involves a higher metabolic activity, which results in an increased production of ROS, inducing insulin resistance. At the same time, obese patients require more insulin to maintain blood glucose homeostasis – a state known as hyperinsulinemia, a condition that can evolve into type 2 diabetes. Oxidation products can increase neutrophil adhesion and chemotaxis, thus favoring oxidative damage. Hyperglycemia and an oxidizing state promote the genesis of advanced glycation end-products, which could also be implicated in the degeneration and damage of periodontal tissue. Thus, MetS, the whole of interconnected factors, presents systemic and local manifestations, such as cardiovascular disease and periodontitis, related by a common factor known as oxidative stress.

Keywords:
Oxidative stress; Metabolic syndrome; Adipocytokines; Periodontitis