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Open Access Research

Vitamin K supplementation does not prevent bone loss in ovariectomized Norway rats

Xueyan Fu1*, Judith Moreines2 and Sarah L Booth1

Author Affiliations

1 Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, 711 Washington Street, Boston, MA 02111, USA

2 Pfizer Consumer Healthcare, 5 Giralda Farms, Madison, NJ 07940, USA

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Nutrition & Metabolism 2012, 9:12  doi:10.1186/1743-7075-9-12

Published: 20 February 2012

Abstract

Background

Despite plausible biological mechanisms, the differential abilities of phylloquinone (PK) and menaquinones (MKn) to prevent bone loss remain controversial. The objective of the current study was to compare the effects of PK, menaquinone-4 (MK-4) and menaquinone-7 (MK-7) on the rate of bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX) Norway rats. A secondary aim was to compare the effects of vitamin K with those of bisphosphonates (BP) on bone loss.

Methods

Rats (n = 96) were randomized to 6 dosing groups [n = 16/group; Sham; OVX; OVX + BP (100 μg/kg/100 μg/mL saline sc); OVX + PK; OVX + MK-4; and OVX + MK-7] for 6 wk. Equimolar daily doses of 107 mg PK/kg, 147 mg MK-4/kg, and 201 mg MK-7/kg diet were provided.

Results

BP significantly increased bone strength and bone mineral density (BMD) vs. OVX (P < 0.05). However, PK, MK-4 or MK-7 did not change bone strength or BMD compared to the OVX group. Whereas supplementation of PK, MK-4 and MK-7 increased serum and tibia concentrations of each respective form, PK concentrations were consistently higher despite equimolar intakes.

Conclusion

PK, MK-4, and MK-7 do not appear to prevent bone loss in OVX rats when administered concurrent with adequate intake of other nutrients.

Keywords:
Bone; Menaquinones; Phylloquinone; Vitamin K