Table 1

Animal studies that have investigated the effects of a KD on tumor progression and host survival

animals

n

tumor

feeding

C/P/F

major fat source

diet initiation

diet duration

BW vs. controls

BG vs. controls

other effects vs. controls

Ref.


(E%)

(d)

(d)


C57BL/6 mice

18

B16 melanoma

ad libitum

0/0/100 1

PUFA vegetable oil

0

14

-

b

lower number of lung metastases b

[116]

BALB/c mice

20

Medina-Oborn-Danielson mammary tumor

restricted to 60 E% of control

30/60/5

hydrogenated vegetable oil

~ 14

70

c

mortality rate ↓ c

[83]

NMR1 mice

> 15

MAC16 colon carcinoma

ad libitum

.../.../80 2

MCT emulsion

8

20

-

50% less weight loss b; left35% less tumor weight

[121]

NMR1 mice

...

MAC16 colon carcinoma

ad libitum

.../.../80

14 - 21

9

-

36% less weight loss a

[123]

32% less tumor weight c

less nitrogen output a

C57BL/6 mice

6

CT-2A mouse astrocytoma

restricted to 60 E% of control

0/8/92

lard

1

13

3

3

80% less tumor weightb; plasma IGF1 levels ↓ b,3

[84]

C57BL/6 mice

11

CT-2A mouse astrocytoma

ad libitum

3/17/80

soy oil (KetoCal©)

3

> 8

-

-

no significant differences in either tumor weight, survival or vascularity

[114]

+

+

+

BALB/cJ SCID mice

14

U87 glioblastoma

restricted to 65-70 E% of control

3/17/80

soy oil (KetoCal©)

3

>8

b

b

65% (CT-2A)band 35% (U87)cless tumor wet weight;

longer survival b; lower number of blood vessels (both tumors)

nu/nu mice

20

LNCaP human prostate cancer

ad libitum

10/45/45

...

14

63

a

...

plasma insulin levels ↓ c; plasma IGF1 levels ↓ c;

[97]

45% less tumor volume a;

43% less tumor dry weightc;

decreased levels of phosphorylated Akt (below detected limits) and insulin receptor in tumor tissue

SCID mice

25

LAPC-4 human prostate cancer

9% more energy than control

0/16/84

milk fat + lard

-24

> 40

-

c

longer survival b

[134]

NMRI mice

12

23132/87 human gastric adenoma

ad libitum

0/14/86

cheese + MCT + omega-3 oil

0

> 16

-

-

longer survival a;

[130]

tumor growth rate ↓ c;

larger necrotic area in tumors b

C3H/HeN mice 4

5

squamous cell car-cinoma VII

ad libitum

16/58/26

...

-7

16

41% less tumor volume d

[131]

Foxn1nu mice

12

LNT-229 glioma cells

ad libitum

0/13/36

flaxseed and hempseed oil

1

> 63

-

-

no significant differences in survival, tumor growth and plasma IGF1 levels

[128]


In all but one cases, control diets contained a minimum of 40% CHO. Diet initiation refers to the time of tumor cell plantation.

SCID = Severe Combined Immunodeficiency; C/P/F = ratio of CHO:protein:fat; E% = percent of energy; BW = body weight; BG = blood glucose

1 plus not further specified pellets on days 5, 8 and 11/2 plus 3 mg/ml beta-hydroxybutyrate in drinking water/3 controls were fed a KD ad libitum, not high-CHO/4 similar results for Rag2M mice bearing human colorectal HCT-116 tumors/a p < 0.005; b p < 0.01; c p < 0.05; d p < 0.1

Klement and Kämmerer Nutrition & Metabolism 2011 8:75   doi:10.1186/1743-7075-8-75

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