Table 4

Studies outlining the effects of supplementing dietary gamma-linolenic acid on changes in plasma/serum phospholipid arachidonic acid level

Author, (reference)

Study design

Subjects

Diet length

GLA source, amount supplemented (g/d)

Δ AA (%) change

Comments


Ebden [52]

Double-blind intervention

N = 6

8 weeks

Efamol oil (0.36)

6.1 (N.S.)

No crossover with placebo. Subjects were asthmatics used medication or bronchodilator.

Thavonen [29]

Randomized, double-blind crossover

N = 15

3 weeks

Black current seed oil (0.38)

3.7 (N.S.)

Subjects aged 55-75 years old

Theis [45]

Double-blind parallel interventions

N = 8

12 weeks

GLA-rich triacylglycerol capsules (0.77)

27 (p < 0.05)

Subjects consumed capsules for 12 weeks. AA changed only on 12th week.

Yaqoob [34]

Double-blind parallel intervention

N = 8

12 weeks

Evening primrose oil (1.06)

14 (N.S.)

Mills [28]

Randomized double-blind parallel intervention

N = 10

28 days

Borage oil (1.30)

12 (p < 0.05)

AA data available for only pre and post intervention (28 days)

Miles [27]

Randomized double-blind intervention

N = 8-12

12 weeks

Borage oil capsules (2.00)

15 (p < 0.05)

Consumed capsules for 12 weeks. AA only increased after the 8th week, no difference after 8th week.

Johnson [53]

Pre-post intervention

N = 5

3 weeks

Ultra-GLA capsules (6.00)

31 (p < 0.05)


Percent change (±) from baseline in AA that is significant is identified with (p < 0.05). Percent change (±) from baseline in AA that is not significant is denoted by N.S.

Abbreviations: AA, arachidonic acid; GLA, gamma-linolenic acid

Rett and Whelan Nutrition & Metabolism 2011 8:36   doi:10.1186/1743-7075-8-36

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