Table 2

Age-adjusted and multivariable-adjusteda bone mineral density (BMD) in the proximal femur (mean and 95% CI) of the PIVUS cohort by amount of coffee consumption

Categories of coffee consumption (cupsb/day)


0-2

3

4

>4

╬▓c (95% CI) per cup

p for trend


All participants (n = 717)


n = 174

n = 191

n = 161

n = 191

Age-adjusted

0.96 (0.94, 0.98)

0.93 (0.91, 0.95)

0.95 (0.93, 0.97)

0.95 (0.92, 0.97)

0.0006

(-0.0061, 0.0074)

Reference

p = 0.06

p = 0.59

p = 0.44

p = 0.85

Multivariate-adjusted

0.96 (0.94, 0.98)

0.94 (0.93, 0.96)

0.94 (0.92, 0.96)

0.94 (0.92, 0.96)

-0.0064

(-0.0127, -0.0001)

Reference

p = 0.15

p = 0.09

p = 0.08

p = 0.04


Men (n = 359)


n = 82

n = 81

n = 85

n = 111

Age-adjusted

1.05 (1.02, 1.09)

1.00 (0.97, 1.04)

1.01 (0.98, 1.04)

1.01 (0.98, 1.03)

-0.0054

(-0.0133, 0.0025)

Reference

p = 0.03

p = 0.07

p = 0.03

p = 0.18

Multivariate-adjusted

1.05 (1.02, 1.08)

1.02 (0.99, 1.04)

1.01 (0.98, 1.03)

1.01 (0.98, 1.03)

-0.0072

(-0.0151, 0.0008)

Reference

p = 0.10

p = 0.04

p = 0.04

p = 0.08


Women (n = 358)


n = 92

n = 110

n = 76

n = 80

Age-adjusted

0.87 (0.85, 0.90)

0.87 (0.85, 0.90)

0.88 (0.85, 0.91)

0.86 (0.83, 0.89)

-0.0043

(-0.0136, 0.0054)

Reference

p = 0.96

p = 0.72

p = 0.57

p = 0.40

Multivariate-adjusted

0.87 (0.85, 0.90)

0.87 (0.85, 0.90)

0.88 (0.85, 0.91)

0.86 (0.84, 0.89)

-0.0041

(-0.0138, 0.0056)

Reference

p = 0.91

p = 0.73

p = 0.62

p = 0.41


a Adjusted by age at the BMD-measurement, height, weight, total caloric intake, vitamin D intake, vitamin A intake, calcium intake, alcohol intake, intake of tea (all continuous), smoking (never, current, former) and levels of leisure physical activity (low, medium, high) b The volume of one cup of coffee is 150 mLc Per cup of coffee

Hallstr├Âm et al. Nutrition & Metabolism 2010 7:12   doi:10.1186/1743-7075-7-12

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