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Effects of a popular exercise and weight loss program on weight loss, body composition, energy expenditure and health in obese women

Chad Kerksick12, Ashli Thomas3, Bill Campbell4, Lem Taylor5, Colin Wilborn5, Brandon Marcello6, Mike Roberts1, Emily Pfau3, Megan Grimstvedt3, Jasmine Opusunju3, Teresa Magrans-Courtney3, Christopher Rasmussen7, Ron Wilson3 and Richard B Kreider7*

Author Affiliations

1 Health and Exercise Science Department, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019-6081, USA

2 Endocrinology and Diabetes Section, Department of Pediatrics, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73104, USA

3 Department of Health, Human Performance and Recreation, Baylor University, One Bear Place, Box 97313, Waco, Texas 76798-7313, USA

4 School of Physical Education & Exercise Science, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620, USA

5 Exercise & Sport Science Department, University of Mary-Hardin Baylor, Belton, Texas 76513, USA

6 Department of Athletics, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California 94305, USA

7 Department of Health & Kinesiology, Texas A & M University, College Station, Texas 77843, USA

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Nutrition & Metabolism 2009, 6:23  doi:10.1186/1743-7075-6-23

Published: 14 May 2009

Abstract

Objective

To determine the safety and efficacy of altering the ratio of carbohydrate and protein in low-energy diets in conjunction with a popular exercise program in obese women.

Design

Matched, prospective clinical intervention study to assess efficacy of varying ratios of carbohydrate and protein intake in conjunction with a regular exercise program.

Participants

One-hundred sixty one sedentary, obese, pre-menopausal women (38.5 ± 8.5 yrs, 164.2 ± 6.7 cm, 94.2 ± 18.8 kg, 34.9 ± 6.4 kg·m-2, 43.8 ± 4.2%) participated in this study. Participants were weight stable and not participating in additional weight loss programs.

Methods

Participants were assigned to either a no exercise + no diet control (CON), a no diet + exercise group (ND), or one of four diet + exercise groups (presented as kcals; % carbohydrate: protein: fat): 1) a high energy, high carbohydrate, low protein diet (HED) [2,600; 55:15:30%], 2) a very low carbohydrate, high protein diet (VLCHP) [1,200 kcals; 63:7:30%], 3) a low carbohydrate, moderate protein diet (LCMP) [1,200 kcals; 50:20:30%] and 4) a high carbohydrate, low protein diet (HCLP) [1,200 kcals; 55:15:30%]. Participants in exercise groups (all but CON) performed a pneumatic resistance-based, circuit training program under supervision three times per week.

Measurements

Anthropometric, body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE), fasting blood samples and muscular fitness assessments were examined at baseline and weeks 2, 10 and 14.

Results

All groups except CON experienced significant reductions (P < 0.05 – 0.001) in waist circumference over 14 weeks. VLCHP, LCHP and LPHC participants experienced similar but significant (P < 0.05 – 0.001) reductions in body mass when compared to other groups. Delta responses indicated that fat loss after 14 weeks was significantly greatest in VLCHP (95% CI: -5.2, -3.2 kg), LCMP (-4.0, -1.9 kg) and HCLP (-3.8, -2.1 kg) when compared to other groups. Subsequent reductions in % body fat were significantly greater in VLCHP, LCMP and HCLP participants. Initial dieting decreased (P < 0.05) relative REE similarly in all groups. All exercise groups significantly (P < 0.05) improved in muscular fitness, but these improvements were not different among groups. Favorable but non-significant mean changes occurred in lipid panels, glucose and HOMA-IR. Leptin levels decreased (P < 0.05) in all groups, except for CON, after two weeks of dieting and remained lower throughout the 14 week program. Exercise participation resulted in significant improvements in quality of life and body image.

Conclusion

Exercise alone (ND) appears to have minimal impact on measured outcomes with positive outcomes apparent when exercise is combined with a hypoenergetic diet. Greater improvements in waist circumference and body composition occurred when carbohydrate is replaced in the diet with protein. Weight loss in all diet groups (VLCHP, LCMP and HCLP) was primarily fat and stimulated improvements in markers of cardiovascular disease risk, body composition, energy expenditure and psychosocial parameters.