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Open Access Research

Three-graded stratification of carbohydrate restriction by level of baseline hemoglobin A1c for type 2 diabetes patients with a moderate low-carbohydrate diet

Hajime Haimoto1*, Tae Sasakabe2, Takahiko Kawamura3, Hiroyuki Umegaki4, Masashi Komeda5 and Kenji Wakai6

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Internal Medicine, Haimoto Clinic, 1-80 Yayoi, Kasugai, Aichi 486-0838, Japan

2 Department of Clinical Nutrition, Haimoto Clinic, 1-80 Yayoi-cho, Kasugai, Aichi 486-0838, Japan

3 Department of Diabetes and Endocrine Internal Medicine, Chubu Rosai Hospital, 10-6-1, Komei-cho, Minato-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 455-8530, Japan

4 Department of Geriatrics, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsuruma-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8550, Japan

5 Department of Cardiac Surgery, Kansai Heart Center, Nara 1-3-3 Ukyo Nara-city, 631-0805, Japan

6 Department of Preventive Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsuruma-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8550, Japan

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Nutrition & Metabolism 2014, 11:33  doi:10.1186/1743-7075-11-33

Published: 28 July 2014

Abstract

Background

A moderate low-carbohydrate diet has been receiving attention in the dietary management of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). A fundamental issue has still to be addressed; how much carbohydrate delta-reduction (Δcarbohydrate) from baseline would be necessary to achieve a certain decrease in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels.

Objective

We investigated the effects of three-graded stratification of carbohydrate restriction by patient baseline HbA1c levels on glycemic control and effects of Δcarbohydrate on decreases in HbA1c levels (ΔHbA1c) in each group.

Research design and methods

We treated 122 outpatients with T2DM by three-graded carbohydrate restriction according to baseline HbA1c levels (≤ 7.4% for Group 1, 7.5%-8.9% for Group 2 and ≥ 9.0% for Group 3) and assessed their HbA1c levels, doses of anti-diabetic drugs and macronutrient intakes over 6 months.

Results

At baseline, the mean HbA1c level and carbohydrate intake were 6.9 ± 0.4% and 252 ± 59 g/day for Group 1 (n = 55), 8.1 ± 0.4% and 282 ± 85 g/day for Group 2 (n = 41) and 10.6 ± 1.4% and 309 ± 88 g/day for Group 3 (n = 26). Following three-graded carbohydrate restriction for 6 months significantly decreased mean carbohydrate intake (g/day) and HbA1c levels for all patients, from 274 ± 78 to 168 ± 52 g and from 8.1 ± 1.6 to 7.1 ± 0.9% (n = 122, P < 0.001 for both) and anti-diabetic drugs could be tapered. ΔHbA1c and Δcarbohydrate were -0.4 ± 0.4% and -74 ± 69 g/day for Group 1, -0.6 ± 0.9% and -117 ± 78 g/day for Group 2 and -3.1 ± 1.4% and -156 ± 74 g/day for Group 3. Linear regression analysis showed that the greater the carbohydrate intake, the greater the HbA1c levels at baseline (P = 0.001). Also, the greater the reduction in carbohydrate intake (g/day), the greater the decrease in HbA1c levels (P < 0.001), but ΔHbA1c was not significantly influenced by changes in other macronutrient intakes (g/day).

Conclusions

Three-graded stratification of carbohydrate restriction according to baseline HbA1c levels may provide T2DM patients with optimal objectives for carbohydrate restriction and prevent restriction from being unnecessarily strict.

Keywords:
Low-carbohydrate diet; Carbohydrate intake; Macronutrient; Hemoglobin A1c; Stratification; Type 2 diabetes