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Open Access Research

Influence of a ketogenic diet, fish-oil, and calorie restriction on plasma metabolites and lipids in C57BL/6J mice

Joshua J Meidenbauer, Nathan Ta and Thomas N Seyfried*

Author Affiliations

Biology Department, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467, USA

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Nutrition & Metabolism 2014, 11:23  doi:10.1186/1743-7075-11-23

Published: 22 May 2014

Abstract

Background

Diet therapies including calorie restriction, ketogenic diets, and fish-oil supplementation have been used to improve health and to treat a variety of neurological and non-neurological diseases.

Methods

We investigated the effects of three diets on circulating plasma metabolites (glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate), hormones (insulin and adiponectin), and lipids over a 32-day period in C57BL/6J mice. The diets evaluated included a standard rodent diet (SD), a ketogenic diet (KD), and a standard rodent diet supplemented with fish-oil (FO). Each diet was administered in either unrestricted (UR) or restricted (R) amounts to reduce body weight by 20%.

Results

The KD-UR increased body weight and glucose levels and promoted a hyperlipidemic profile, whereas the FO-UR decreased body weight and glucose levels and promoted a normolipidemic profile, compared to the SD-UR. When administered in restricted amounts, all three diets produced a similar plasma metabolite profile, which included decreased glucose levels and a normolipidemic profile. Linear regression analysis showed that circulating glucose most strongly predicted body weight and triglyceride levels, whereas calorie intake moderately predicted glucose levels and strongly predicted ketone body levels.

Conclusions

These results suggest that biomarkers of health can be improved when diets are consumed in restricted amounts, regardless of macronutrient composition.

Keywords:
Ketogenic diet; Omega-3 fatty acids; Calorie restriction; Glucose; Ketones