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Open Access Research

Glutamine attenuates the inhibitory effect of methotrexate on TLR signaling during intestinal chemotherapy-induced mucositis in a rat

Igor Sukhotnik12*, Yulia Pollak1, Arnold G Coran5, Janna Pilatov1, Jacob Bejar3, Jorge G Mogilner2 and Drora Berkowitz4

Author Affiliations

1 The Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Laboratory of intestinal adaptation and recovery, Haifa, Israel

2 Department of Pediatric Surgery, Bnai Zion Medical Center, 47 Golomb St., P.O.B. 4940, Haifa 31048, Israel

3 Pathology, Bnai Zion Medical Center, Haifa, Israel

4 Gastroenterology, Bnai Zion Medical Center, Haifa, Israel

5 Section of Pediatric Surgery C.S. Mott Children’s Hospital and University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA

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Nutrition & Metabolism 2014, 11:17  doi:10.1186/1743-7075-11-17

Published: 17 April 2014

Abstract

Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) is crucial in maintaining intestinal epithelial homeostasis, participates in a vigorous signaling process and heightens inflammatory cytokine output. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of glutamine (GLN) on TLR-4 signaling in intestinal mucosa during methotrexate (MTX)-induced mucositis in a rat. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups of 8 rats each: 1) control rats; 2) CONTR-GLN animals were treated with oral glutamine given in drinking water (2%) 48 hours before and 72 hours following vehicle injection; 3) MTX-rats were treated with a single IP injection of MTX (20 mg/kg); and 4) MTX-GLN rats were pre-treated with oral glutamine similar to group B, 48 hours before and 72 hours after MTX injection. Intestinal mucosal damage, mucosal structural changes, enterocyte proliferation and enterocyte apoptosis were determined 72 hours following MTX injection. The expression of TLR-4, MyD88 and TRAF6 in the intestinal mucosa was determined using real time PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry. MTX-GLN rats demonstrated a greater jejunal and ileal mucosal weight and mucosal DNA, greater villus height in ileum and crypt depth and index of proliferation in jejunum and ileum, compared to MTX animals. The expression of TLR-4 and MyD88 mRNA and protein in the mucosa was significantly lower in MTX rats versus controls animals. The administration of GLN increased significantly the expression of TLR-4 and MyD88 (vs the MTX group). In conclusion, treatment with glutamine was associated with up-regulation of TLR-4 and MyD88 expression and a concomitant decrease in intestinal mucosal injury caused by MTX-induced mucositis in a rat.

Keywords:
Toll-like receptor 4; Methotrexate; Mucositis; Glutamine