ProAlgaZyme subfraction improves the lipoprotein profile of hypercholesterolemic hamsters, while inhibiting production of betaine, carnitine, and choline metabolites
Nutrition and Food Science, 3009 Science Hall, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202, USA
Nutrition & Metabolism 2013, 10:55 doi:10.1186/1743-7075-10-55Published: 27 August 2013
Previously, we reported that ProAlgaZyme (PAZ) and its biologically active fraction improved plasma lipids in hypercholesterolemic hamsters, by significantly increasing the high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) while reducing non-HDL cholesterol and the ratio of total cholesterol/HDL-C. Moreover, hepatic mRNA expression of genes involved in HDL/reverse cholesterol transport were significantly increased, while cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) expression was partially inhibited. In the current study, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy of the biologically active fraction of PAZ (BaP) on the plasma lipid and plasma metabolomic profiles in diet induced hypercholesterolemic hamsters.
Fifty male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed a high fat diet for 4 weeks prior to randomization into 6 groups, based on the number of days they received subsequent treatment. Thus animals in T0, T3, T7, T10, T14, and T21 groups received BaP for 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, and 21 days, respectively, as their drinking fluid. Plasma lipids were assayed enzymatically, while real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) provided the transcription levels of the Apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 gene. The plasma metabolomic profile was determined using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in conjunction with multivariate analysis.
Plasma HDL-C was significantly increased in T3 (P < 0.05) and T21 (P < 0.001), while non-HDL cholesterol was significantly reduced in T3, T7, T10 (P < 0.001) and T14, T21 (P < 0.01). Moreover, the ratio of total cholesterol/HDL-C was significantly lower in all BaP treated groups (P < 0.001) as compared with T0. Quantitative RT-PCR showed an increase in Apo A1 expression in T10 (3-fold) and T21 (6-fold) groups. NMR data followed by multivariate analysis showed a clear separation between T0 and T21 groups, indicating a difference in their metabolomic profiles. Plasma concentrations of metabolites associated with a risk for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, including choline, phosphocholine, glycerol-phosphocholine, betaine and carnitine metabolites were significantly lower in the T21 group.
Treatment with BaP significantly improved the plasma lipid profile by increasing HDL-C and lowering non-HDL cholesterol. In addition, BaP potentially improved the plasma metabolomic profile by reducing the concentration of key metabolites associated with risk for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease.